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EAST KENT SHORT MAT BOWLS ASSOCIATION

RULES

Originally the EAST KENT SHORT MAT LEAGUE
FOUNDED 1986/87
This publication first printed April 1993

2nd Edition - May 1995
3rd Edition - May 1997
Minor Updates - May 1998
Minor Updates - May 1999
4th Edition - May 2000
5th Edition - May 2002
6th Edition - May 2003
7th Edition - May 2004
8th Edition - May 2005
9th Edition - May 2006
10th Edition - May 2007
Minor Updates - May 2008
11th Editition - May 2009
Amendments - May 2010
Amendments - May 2011
Amendments - May 2012
12th Edition - May 2013
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the East Kent Short Mat Bowls Association.

For Officer's names and addresses see seperate Yearbook.

These Rules are set out for the use of all players in the above Association, and no other rules should be used whilst playing any games or competitions organised by the said Association.

    GENERAL INDEX
    RULES

CONDITIONS OF PLAY
1a] TEAM SELECTION
1] TRIAL ENDS
2] VISITORS JACK
3] PLAYING FIRST
4] PLACING THE DELIVERY MAT
5] PLACING THE JACK
6] STANCE ON THE DELIVERY MAT
7] FOOT FAULTING
8] FENDER DISPLACEMENT
9] PLACEMENT OR DISPLACEMENT OF BLOCK
10] FORCING SHOTS
11] POSSESSION OF THE RINK MAT
12] POSITION OF PLAYERS
13] CONDUCT

THE BOWLS
14] LIVE BOWLS
15] MARKING A TOUCHER
16] ACTION OF TOUCHERS
17] DEAD BOWLS
18] LINE DECISIONS
19] BOWL DISPLACEMENT
20] BOWL DRIVEN OVER FENDER

THE JACK
21] LIVE JACK
22] DEAD JACK
23] DEAD END PENALTY
24] REBOUNDING JACK
25] JACK DRIVEN OVER FENDER
26] JACK DISPLACEMENT

PLAY INFRINGEMENTS
27] FOLLOWING A BOWL UP THE RINK MAT
28] PLAYING BEFORE LAST BOWL COMES TO REST
29] PLAYING OUT OF TURN
30] PLAYING THE WRONG BOWL
31] CHANGING BOWLS
32] LEAVING THE RINK
33] ABSENTEE PLAYERS
34] PLAYING WITH A PLAYER MISSING
35] OBJECTS ON THE RINK MAT
36] CHANGING THE ORDER OF PLAY

RESULTS OF AN END
37] THE SHOT OR SHOTS
38] MEASURING
39] LIVE END : NO SCORE
40] EXTRA ENDS
41] GAME DECISIONS

SPECTATORS & BOWLERS WITH BOWLING DIFFICULTIES
42] SPECTATORS
43] BOWLERS WITH BOWLING DIFFICULTIES

CONDITIONS OF THE GAME
44] FORM AND DURATION
45] PLAY ARRANGEMENTS

EQUIPMENT
46] MATCH UMPIRES AND EQUIPMENT
47] THE RINK MAT
48] THE BOWLS
49] THE JACK
50] MAT EQUIPMENT DIAGRAM & MEASUREMENTS 50.1 - 50.10

COMPETITIONS
51] SINGLES AND PAIRS COMPETITION RULES
52] OYSTER CUP INTER-CLUB TRIPLES CCOMPETITION

PLAYERS AND THEIR DUTIES
53] SKIP
54] THIRD in a FOURS Game
55] SECOND in a FOURS Game
56] SECOND in a TRIPLES Game
57] LEAD
58] DIRECTING PLAY

DUTIES OF THE MARKER AND UMPIRE
59] MARKER
60] UMPIRE

DEFINITIONS AND GLOSSARY OF TERMS

FINAL WORD

APPENDIX 1 GUIDELINES FOR BOWLERS WITH BOWLING DIFFICULTIES


CONDITIONS OF PLAY

1a] TEAM SELECTION
Before the start of a League Match, the Team Captains will fill in the names of their players, forename and surname on the relevant side, home or away, of their two scorecards.  The Home captain will also designate the mat to be played on each of their cards.
Each Captain will place their scorecards face down and each will select one scorecard from their opponents two, and will complete the names of the players on each card, theirs and their opponents, and return the opponents card once completed.
Once the scorecards have been completed and exchanged there can be no change to the players named in each team.  The only exception to this, where the opposing captain agrees, may be the replacement of an absent player, only on the mat where the player is absent.  The playing order will be at the Skip’s discretion as in Rule 36.
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1] TRIAL ENDS
Trial ends shall be at the discretion of the controlling body.
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2] VISITORS JACK
There will be no initial tossing of a coin. The visiting team will be given the choice, and may therefore opt to play first or second. It is not permissable to "give the jack away" at any other time during a match.
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3] PLAYING FIRST
3.1. In all subsequent ends to the first, the winner of the preceding end shall play first.
3.2. In the event of a tied end ( no score ) or a dead end, the player who played first in that end shall again play first.
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4] PLACING THE DELIVERY MAT
4.1. At the beginning of an end the player who is to play first shall place the delivery mat within the delivery lines, with the shorter side in contact with the fender.
4.2. The delivery mat must not be moved until the end is complete. If it is accidentally moved, the following player must return it to its proper position.
4.3. The last player to bowl in the end shall remove the delivery mat, placing it clear of the rink mat.
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5] PLACING THE JACK
5.1. The Marker in a singles game shall place the jack on the jack line, where the player who is to play first requires it.
5.2. The Skip whose side it is to play first shall place the jack on the jack line at any length he/she chooses.
5.3. The jack may be placed on the jack line in any position, and it may overhang the end of the jack line providing it remains in contact with the jack line.
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6] STANCE ON THE DELIVERY MAT
A player, at the moment of delivering his/her bowl shall have one foot entirely within the confines of the delivery mat. The foot must either be in contact with or directly above the delivery mat. The other foot must be inside the delivery lines. No part of the body shall be in direct contact with the rink outside of the delivery lines. Failure to observe this Rule constitutes Foot Faulting.
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7] FOOT FAULTING
7.1. In a Singles game, should a player foot fault, the Marker shall stop the bowl and remove it clear of the rink.
7.2. In all other cases it is the opposing player who is in charge of the head, who will stop and remove the offending bowl.
Note: In Pairs, Triples and Fours, it is the duty of the players who are at the delivery end to call foot faults. In Singles only the players involved and the Umpire may call foot faults.
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8] FENDER DISPLACEMENT
8.1. Should the fender become displaced by a non-toucher entering the ditch:-
      8.1.1. In a Singles game, the Marker will replace the fender and restore the jack and/or any       touchers, which may have been at rest in the ditch, to their original marked positions.
      8.1.2. In all other games, the person who is in charge of the head shall be responsible for       replacing the fender and restoring the jack and/or any touchers, which may have been at rest       in the ditch, to their original positions.
8.2. Should the fender be displaced by a toucher or the jack entering the ditch and where such bowl/s or the jack touch the floor surface within the confines of the displaced fender, the following rules apply :-
      8.2.1. In a Singles game, the Marker will replace the fender and place the jack and/or bowl/s       in the position/s at which it/they contacted the fender or left the rink mat, also restoring the       the jack and/or any touchers, which may have been at rest in the ditch, to their original marked       positions.
      8.2.2.In all other games, the person who is in charge of the head for the opposing side shall       be responsible for replacing the fender and placing the jack and/or bowl/s in the position/s at       which it/they contacted the fender or left the rink mat, also restoring the jack and/or any       touchers, which may have been at rest in the ditch, to their original positions.
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9] PLACEMENT OR DISPLACEMENT OF BLOCK
At the beginning of a game the block must be placed centrally across the rink mat, on the block line, by the team who have control of the mat. (Or the Marker in a Singles game)
If the block is not centrally positioned at the start of an end, or after being re-sited following displacement by a bowl in play, or some other source of interference and play commences with it in this mis-aligned position, it shall remain in this position until either the end is completed or it is again displaced by a bowl in play, or some other source of interference. A player may not reposition the block for any other reason.
When the block is disturbed, whatever reason, it shall be replaced by the team who have control of the rink mat. (Or the Marker in a Singles game)
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10] FORCING SHOTS
A player who intends to play a forcing shot must give a verbal and visual warning to the player in charge of the head end, or the Marker in a Singles game. They must then allow time for those in the vicinity of the head to be made aware of their intentions before delivering their bowl.
Once informed that a forcing or firing shot is intended, the player in charge of the head (or the marker in a singles game) must advise all players, Markers, Umpires or spectators in the vicinity of the head that such a shot is about to be played.
It is ultimately the responsibility of the player delivering the bowl to ensure that no other person is placed at risk of injury.
Failure to comply with this rule will result in the offending player being warned at the first infringement. Any Subsequent infringement will result in the player being asked to leave the rink and take no further part in the game.
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11] POSSESSION OF THE RINK MAT
11.1. Possession of the rink mat shall belong to the side whose bowl is being bowled.
11.2. The players in possession of the rink mat shall not be interfered with, annoyed, barracked, or have their attention distracted by their opponents.
11.3. As soon as each bowl has come to rest, possession of the rink mat shall be transferred to the other side. Time being allowed for marking touchers, removing dead bowls or making line decisions.
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12] POSITION OF PLAYERS
Players not in the act of playing or controlling play must position themselves clear of the rink mat and be, where practicable, behind the fender. (See also Rule 45.1.4.)
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13] CONDUCT
In the case of a wilful breach of the Rules of the game or unfair play or unsporting conduct, the umpire may caution the offending player/s or spectator/s or order them to retire from the rink mat or area. If the offender is a player, no substitute shall be allowed. In all cases except serious misconduct, a player shall receive one caution.
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THE BOWLS

14] LIVE BOWLS
A Live Bowl is :-
14.1. A bowl which in its original course comes to rest wholly within the live area, even if it overhangs the edge of the rink mat.
14.2. A bowl which in its original course breaks the ditch line but does not interfere with any toucher or the jack in the ditch or touch the fender or makes contact with the floor or the block, and comes to rest wholly within the live area, even if it overhangs the edge of the rink mat.
14.3. A bowl which in its original course touches the jack, either directly or by deflection off another bowl or bowls, even if it settles in the ditch or makes contact with the fender after it has touched the jack. It shall also be a toucher if the jack is sprung to touch the bowl whilst still in motion, or if it falls and touches the jack before the next bowl is delivered. Such a bowl shall be live and be called a toucher and shall remain in play until the end is completed unless it is knocked off the side of the rink mat. If it comes to rest in the ditch, its position should be suitably marked (if marking the mat use stick chalk NOT SPRAY), so that it may be accurately replaced in the event of it being illegally disturbed.
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15] MARKING A TOUCHER
15.1. A toucher shall be clearly marked with chalk by a member of the players side before the next bowl delivered comes to rest. If a bowl is not so marked before the succeeding bowl comes to rest it will cease to be a toucher, unless, in the opinion of either Skip or the player in charge of the head, that to attempt to chalk such a bowl could cause it to fall or move. It should not be chalked but it must be nominated as a toucher and it should then be chalked if the danger ceases during the course of play.
15.2. The Marker in a Singles game should chalk all touchers and should indicate to the players any bowl that is a toucher that he/she is unable to chalk.
15.3. Should a bowl be played which has not had the chalk removed, the Skip, or player in charge of the head, or Marker, shall remove the mark as soon as the bowl has come to rest. If there is a danger that such a bowl should fall and alter the head or its position, it should be indicated and the mark removed if the position is changed.
15.4. All toucher marks should be removed before any bowl is played.
15.5. When marking touchers, the marks used can be any shape and must, in competition or league games, be applied ONLY by spray chalk. Stick chalk may be used in friendlies, or roll-ups.
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16] ACTION OF TOUCHERS
16.1. Touchers may act upon the jack or other touchers in the ditch. The jack and any such touchers moved shall remain in their new positions.
16.2. Touchers rebounding from the jack or the fender or from other touchers in the ditch into the live area, shall remain in play where they have come to rest.
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17] DEAD BOWLS
A Bowl is Dead and must be removed from the rink mat :-
17.1. If it is delivered from a foot fault position.
17.2. If it strikes the block or passes over it. If there is a dispute over whether or not the bowl in play touched the block during its course of travel to the head, and the Skips fail to agree, even after the head has been altered, then even if this is the last end it must be played again and in the same direction.
17.3. If it does not travel beyond the dead area.
17.4.If it finishes in the ditch without touching the jack.
17.5. If it touches or rebounds from the fender or contacts a toucher or the jack which is in the ditch, unless it is a toucher.
17.6. If any portion of the bowl intersects any part of the dead line, unless it is a toucher.
17.7. If when it comes to rest any portion of the bowl intersects any part of the ditch line, unless it is a toucher.
17.8. If it makes contact with the floor or leaves the rink mat, except as in Rule 8, Fender Displacement.
Note: An underlay is part of the playing surface.
17.9. If it is carried beyond the dead line, by the player who is in possession of the rink mat.
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18] LINE DECISIONS
All line decisions must be dealt with before the next bowl is played. Failure to comply with this rule will render such a bowl LIVE. ( A square should be used where necessary )
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19] BOWL DISPLACEMENT
19.1. Displacement by a NON-TOUCHER :-
      If a head is disturbed by :-
      19.1.1. A bowl delivered from a foot fault position,
      19.1.2. A bowl that strikes or contacts the block,
      19.1.3. A bowl that rebounds from a toucher that is in the ditch,
      19.1.4. A bowl deflected by the fender,
      19.1.5. A bowl or jack in the ditch that is moved by a non-toucher,
      It shall be restored as near as possible to its original position by the opposing Skip,
      or by the opposing player who is in charge of the head and the end completed.
19.2. Displacement by a PARTICIPATING PLAYER :-
      If a bowl whilst in motion or at rest on the rink mat, or if a toucher in the ditch, be       interfered with or displaced by one of the players, the opposing Skip shall have the option of :-
      19.2.1. Restoring the bowl as near as possible to its original position.
      19.2.2. Letting it remain in its new position.
      19.2.3. Declaring the bowl dead and having it removed from the rink mat.
      19.2.4. Playing the end again, and it must be in the same direction.
19.3. Displacement by a NON-PLAYER :-
If a bowl whilst in motion or at rest on the rink mat, or if a toucher in the ditch, be interfered with or displaced by any person not playing, or by a jack or bowl(s) from another rink mat, or by any other object, the two Skips will come to an agreement regarding its original position. Should the Skips fail to agree, then the end shall be played again in the same direction.
19.4. Displacement by the MARKER :-
If a bowl is moved as the Marker is measuring it, it shall be restored as near as possible to its original position by the Marker, subject to the agreement of both players. If the players cannot agree, then the end shall be played again in the same direction.
If a shot or shots have already been awarded, the player holding the shot/s will have the option of accepting this as the score for that end or playing the end again in the same direction.
19.5. Displacement by the UMPIRE :-
If the Umpire accidentally moves a bowl or bowls whilst measuring, he/she will replace it as near as possible to its original position before completing his/her decision. HE/SHE WILL BE SOLE ARBITER IN THIS MATTER.
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20] BOWL DRIVEN OVER FENDER
If a bowl is delivered with such a force as to pass over, or cause another bowl to pass over the back or side of the fender, the opposing Skip shall have the option of :-
20.1. Claiming 3 shots and counting the end as played.
20.2. Counting the end as an end played and claiming the shots lying.
20.3. Completing the end.
20.4. Playing the end again as in a dead end.
20.5. If a bowl or bowls and the jack are driven over the back or side of the fender at the same time, the Rule concerning the jack (Rule 25) will take precedence.
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THE JACK

21] LIVE JACK
21.1. A jack is live and may be played by a live bowl if the jack is within the live area, or if any portion of it is within the live area when it is intersecting the ditch line and this Bowl would be determined to be a toucher if it remains within the live area. This includes the ditch.
This also means that any live bowl which in its original course enters the ditch, (does not touch the fender, or any bowl which is at rest within the ditch) and touches any part of the jack which is intersecting the ditch line and has a portion in the live area, will be determined a toucher and should be chalked and its position marked should it come to rest in the ditch.
21.2. If a jack is driven into the ditch, its position must be suitably marked (if marking the mat use stick (NOT SPRAY) chalk), so that it can be accurately replaced in the event of it being illegally disturbed. It can only be moved by a toucher.
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22] DEAD JACK
The Jack is Dead if :-
22.1. Any portion of it comes into direct contact with the floor or any other non-playing surface other than the fender. The exception to this being Rule 8.2. Note : The underlay is part of the playing surface.
22.2. It is driven by a bowl in play beyond the boundary of the rink mat, i.e. over the fender, off the side, or over the dead line.
22.3. After rebounding it comes to rest either in the dead area or with any part of it intersecting the dead line.
22.4. If the jack is knocked to the edge of the mat and falls off during subsequent play, without the action of another bowl hitting it. The end will be declared dead and will be replayed from the same direction.
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23] DEAD END PENALTY
23.1. All games are limited to ONE dead end by each team, or player in a Singles game. Any subsequent dead ends will result in 2 shots being awarded to the opponent/s and the end will count as played. First dead end by either side, will be played again in the same direction, and all subsequent dead ends will be played from where that end finished. Scorecards must be marked with a cross alongside the offending teams score to show dead ends.
23.2. Where a dead end occurs for the First Time, for Either Team, on the final end of a game, then that end must be replayed.
23.3. Second dead ends by either team on the final end will incur the same penalty as in 23.1 above. However, the non-offending Skip has the option of declining the shots awarded and playing the end again, in the same direction.
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24] REBOUNDING JACK
Should the jack be driven against the fender and rebound onto the live area, or should it rebound from a toucher in the ditch into the live area, or after being played into the ditch it be moved by a toucher so as to find its way onto the live area, it shall be played to in the same manner as if it never left the live area.
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25] JACK DRIVEN OVER FENDER
If a player drives the jack over the back or sides of the fender, the opposing Skip shall have the option of :-
25.1. Claiming 3 shots and counting the end as played.
25.2. Playing the end again as in a dead end.
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26] JACK DISPLACEMENT
26.1. Displacement by a Non toucher:-
      A jack disturbed by a bowl which :-
      26.1.1. has been delivered from a foot fault position,
      26.1.2.strikes or touches the block,
      26.1.3. being a non-toucher rebounds from the fender,
      26.1.4. being a non-toucher contacts it in the ditch,
      shall be restored as near as possible to its original position by the opposing Skip or player in       charge of the head.
26.2. Displacement by a PARTICIPATING PLAYER :-
      If the jack whilst in motion or at rest on the rink mat be interfered with by a player, the       opposing Skip shall have the option of :-
      26.2.1 Restoring the jack as near as possible to its original position.
      26.2.2. Letting it remain where it rests.
      26.2.3. Playing the end again in the same direction.
26.3. Displacement by a NON-PLAYER :-
If the jack whilst in motion or at rest on the rink mat, be interfered with, displaced or moved by a non-player, or by a jack or bowl from another rink mat, or by any other object, the Skips shall come to an agreement regarding its original position and the jack will be restored. Should they fail to agree, then the end will be played again in the same direction.
26.4. Displacement by the MARKER :-
If the jack is moved by the Marker whilst measuring it will be replaced as near as possible to its original position, and both players will agree its position. If they do not agree then the end will be replayed in the same direction. If a shot or shots have already been agreed, that player shall have the right to accept that score, and the end will count as played.
26.5. Displacement by a PLAYER MEASURING :-
      Should a player in the act of measuring accidentally move the jack, the opposing player who       agrees the shots shall :-
      26.5.1. Replace the jack as near as possible to its original position.
      26.5.2. Agree the shot or shots already claimed.
      26.5.3. Agree or accept the shot or shots already taken out.
      26.5.4. Play the end again from the same direction.
26.6. Displacement by the UMPIRE :-
Should the Umpire accidentally move the jack whilst in the act of measuring, he/she will replace it in its original position before completing his/her decision.
HE/SHE WILL BE THE SOLE ARBITER of the position, and HIS/HER DECISION SHALL BE BINDING.
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PLAY INFRINGEMENTS

27] FOLLOWING THE BOWL UP THE RINK MAT
No player shall follow their bowl up the rink mat, or leave the rink mat and follow it up the side.
Any player that infringes this Rule must be warned as soon as they cross the nearest dead line, and on the second offence the opposing Skip can have the bowl stopped and removed from the rink mat, or have the end played again, in the same direction.
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28] PLAYING BEFORE THE LAST BOWL HAS COME TO REST
28.1. A bowl played before the last bowl has come to rest must be stopped and removed from the rink mat.
28.2. Any such bowl that disturbs the head or makes contact with any bowl or the jack, the opponent may leave the head as altered or declare it void and replay the end in the same direction.
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29] PLAYING OUT OF TURN
29.1. If a player plays before their turn the opposing Skip shall have the right to stop the bowl and cause it to be played again in the proper order.
29.2. If a bowl so played has moved the jack or altered the head, the opposing Skip shall have the option of allowing the head to remain as it is or to declare it void. If the head is declared void it must be replayed in the same direction.
29.3. If the head is allowed to remain in its new position, the other players will follow in the new order of play for that end.
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30] PLAYING THE WRONG BOWL
A bowl played by mistake shall be replaced by the players own bowl.
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31] CHANGING BOWLS
No player shall change their bowls during a game unless they become damaged.
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32] LEAVING THE RINK
32.1. No player will leave the rink whilst a game is in progress without first consulting their opposite number, and then for a period not exceeding 10 minutes.
32.2. If during a team game, a player is forced to leave through illness or other just cause, the game will continue with the missing player classed as the Second. They may return later if both Skips agree.
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33] ABSENTEE PLAYERS
33.1. If a player is absent from a side at the time laid down for the commencement of the game, a wait of 10 minutes may be allowed.
33.2. If trial ends are to be played, they will take place, the missing player will forfeit his or her right to trial ends.
33.3. If the missing player arrives before the trial ends are completed, they will be allowed to play, only the trial ends will be forfeited.
33.4. If the missing player has not arrived by the expiry of the time allowed, a Singles or Pairs game will be awarded to the opponents.
33.5. A Triples or Fours game will commence with the missing player being considered as the Second and a definite order of play will be maintained. It shall be : Lead, Lead, Second : Lead, Lead, Second.
33.6. If the missing player arrives after the delivery mat has been placed for the first end, they will not be allowed to play.
33.7. One team is complete with 6 players, but only 3 of the other team are present 10 minutes after the match is due to start and trial ends have been played as per paragraph 33.2. above.
      33.7.1. The team with 3 players shall concede one game and 4 points, and play the other
              game.
      33.7.2. The remaining points shall be awarded for the played game as follows:-
              2 points for a Win, 1 point each for a Draw
              The 2 bonus points will only be given where the team having been awarded the conceded
              game, also wins the played game.
33.8. One team is complete with 6 players, but only 4 of the other team are present 10 minutes after the match is due to start and trial ends have been played as per paragraph 33.2. above, at the choice of the captain of the team with players missing, the match can be played as follows:-
      33.8.1. The team with 4 players can play both games with missing Second and a definite
              order of play will be maintained. It shall be Lead, Lead, Second: Lead, Lead, Second.
      33.8.2. The team with 4 players shall concede one game and 4 points and play the other game.
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34] PLAYING WITH A PLAYER MISSING
There will be no penalty or extra bowls played by the side with a player missing.
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35] OBJECTS ON THE RINK MAT
Under no circumstances shall any object, to assist any player or influence play, be placed on the rink mat, fender, jack, bowl or elsewhere. the only exception to this Rule can be found in Appendix 1 - Guidelines For Bowlers With Bowling Difficulties.
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36] CHANGING ORDER OF PLAY
Players may change their order of play at the completion of any end.
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RESULT OF AN END

37] THE SHOT OR SHOTS
37.1. A shot or shots shall be adjudged as the bowl or bowls nearer the jack than the nearest bowl played by the opposite side.
37.2. When the last bowl of an end has come to rest, 30 seconds shall elapse if either side requests it, during that time no bowls shall be touched, chalked up, measured or interfered with. The request must be made as soon as the last bowl has come to rest. No player may walk in the live area during that time.
37.3. Neither the jack nor the bowls must be moved until both sides agree the result, except where a bowl or bowls have to be removed to allow another to be measured. Only the player conceding the shot/s may remove the bowls from the rink mat. If a player removes a bowl/s before agreement has been reached, the opposing team may claim a penaltyof one shot per bowl removed.
37.4. No measuring shall be allowed until after the last bowl, of an end, has come to rest.
37.5. When the last bowl has come to rest at the completion of an end, only one player from a team shall be allowed on the mat for the purpose of deciding the shot/s scored.
37.6. It shall not be deemed mandatory for the last player to play their last bowl in any end, but they should make their intentions known to the opposing side, before commencement of determination of the result of an end. Note : Once they have so declared, that bowl may not be played.
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38] MEASURING
38.1. All measuring must be done with callipers, flexible measure or other approved equipment.
38.2. All measuring shall be to the nearest point of both objects.
38.3. If a bowl requiring to be measured is resting on another bowl the best means available shall be taken to secure its position, whereupon the other bowl shall be removed. The same applies if more than one bowl is involved. It is recommended that wedges are used for this purpose. The use of the hand or fingers for this purpose is prohibited.
38.4. The same applies if a bowl not so resting is in danger of falling before measuring is complete, or if the jack is in a position that it may be moved whilst it is being measured. The best means available shall be taken to secure its position prior to the measure being taken.
38.5. The placing of the hand or finger on the jack or any bowl to be measured constitutes disturbance and the opposing side shall claim the shot or shots or refuse to acknowledge the shot or shots in dispute.
38.6. Measuring with hand, foot, mat or any other object other than the recognised measure is prohibited.
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39] LIVE END, NO SCORE
When at the conclusion of an end, the nearest bowls of each side are touching the jack, or the two nearest opposing bowls are of an equal distance from the jack or there are no bowls in the live area or touchers in the ditch, it shall be deemed to be a live end and no score. The end shall be recorded as a played end. The player who played first in the tied end shall again play first and it shall be played from where the last end finished.
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40] EXTRA END
40.1. In the event of a draw at the conclusion of a game where a winner must be determined, an extra end must be played.
40.2. The Skips in a team game, or the Leads in any other game shall toss for start, the winner shall have the right to play first or second.
40.3. The extra end shall be played from where the last end finished.
40.4. If at the conclusion of the extra end it is still a draw, a further extra end will be played. The toss will be made again and the end played from where the last end finished.
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41] GAME DECISIONS
The winner is the player or team with the highest number of shots or points at the end of the game.
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SPECTATORS & BOWLERS WITH BOWLING DIFFICULTIES

42] SPECTATORS
Persons not engaged in the game shall be situated clear of and beyond the limits of the rink mat. Neither by word nor act shall they disturb or advise the players. The officials shall have the power to take whatever action is necessary to control any spectators.
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43] BOWLERS WITH BOWLING DIFFICULTIES
It is EKSMBA policy to promote full participation for all, where venue anomalies allow. Team Captains, Skips and Umpires should permit variations to any rules/guidelines in order to allow a person with bowling difficulties, whether permanent or temporary, to play on as equal terms as possible, provided such variations do not constitute an unfair advantage. (See Appendix 1-Guidelines for Bowlers with Bowling Difficulties at the end of this book)

Team Captains should inform the Umpire/opposing Captain, in advance of the day of the match, if any members of their team have special requirements.
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CONDITIONS OF THE GAME

44] FORM AND DURATION
A game of bowls shall be played on one rink mat or on several. It shall consist of a specified number of shots, or ends, or shall be played for any period of time previously arranged.
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45] PLAY ARRANGEMENTS
45.1. A game shall be played on one rink as :-
      45.1.1. A Singles game by two players, each player playing four bowls singly and alternately.
      45.1.2. A Pairs game by two players on either side, each playing two bowls. The Leads shall play their bowls singly, alternately and in turn before changing ends with the Skips. The Skips will then play their bowls, singly alternately and in turn.
      45.1.3. A Triples game by two teams of three players on each side, each player playing two bowls singly, alternately and in turn. The Leads playing their bowls before the Seconds be allowed to bowl their bowls. The Leads will remain at the delivery mat end until after both Seconds have played all their bowls, then these four players will change ends with the Skips, who will now play their bowls singly, alternately and in turn.
      45.1.4. A Fours game (Rink) by two teams of four players on each side, each player will play two bowls singly, alternately and in turn, the Leads will bowl their bowls before the Seconds be allowed to bowl theirs. All players shall remain behind the fender, where practicable.
      If no Third is at the head end, both Thirds will then bowl theirs bowls singly, alternately and in These players will then change ends with the Skips who will then play their bowls singly, alternately and in turn.
       Where one or both Thirds elect to be at the head end whilst the Leads and Seconds play their bowls, the Leads and Seconds will play their bowls as above and then proceed to the head end. The Thirds will leave the head end when it is their turn to bowl and may not return to the head end until both have played their two bowls for that end.
45.2. A team game shall be played by two sides on a given number of rink mats, each side composed of an equal number of players.
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EQUIPMENT

Clubs must ensure all their equipment meets the Association requirements as laod out in Rules 46 to 50 inc.
46] MATCH UMPIRES & EQUIPMENT
The HOME team shall always be responsible for supplying a Non Playing Umpire. He/She must be conversant with this Rule book.
If any matter arises that he/she feels unable to deal with, then it should be referred to the Association Committee for their decision.
The HOME team shall have available for use : ... an ample supply of ancillary equipment, i.e.; Measures, Wedges, Squares, Callipers, Spray & Stick Chalk etc.
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47] THE RINK MAT
The rink mat shall be of a suitable material conducive to the true running of bowls.
It shall be coloured green and shall have suitable underlay or an approved bonded backing.
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48] THE BOWLS
Bowls shall not exceed 5¼ inches ( 135 mm ) or be less than 4½ inches ( 115 mm ) in diameter, and shall not exceed 3½ lbs ( 1590 gms ) in weight, and may be of any colour or composition.
Loading of bowls is strictly prohibited.
Coloured discs or stickers may be used to identify team or club bowls and for this purpose, they shall be classed as part of the bowl. The placing of a number of coloured stickers on top of each other could render the bowl invalid if objected to.
Bias 3 bowls are recommended.
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49] THE JACK
The jack shall be round and white or yellow in colour.
Only 30 oz. ( 850 g ) jacks are permitted in any game organised by this Association.
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50] MAT & EQUIPMENT MEASUREMENTS

mat diagram

50.1. RINK MAT
Maximum Length 45ft (13700mm) Minimum Length 40ft (12200mm)
Width 6ft (1830mm) Width Tolerance 2in (50mm)

50.2. FENDER (A)
Back :-
6ft (1830mm)(Inside) x 3in (76mm) High x 3in (76mm) Max Width, 1½in (38mm) Min Width
Side :-
12in (305mm)(Inside) x 3in (76mm) High x 3in (76mm) Max Width, 1½in (38mm) Min Width
Note : Fender sides may be extended beyond "Back" and joined by a wooden strip to make a recess to hold bowls.
50.3. BLOCK
Length 15in (380mm)
Height 3in (76mm)
Width 3in (76mm) Max,1½in (38mm) Min
50.4. DELIVERY MAT
Length 24in (610mm)
Width 14in (356mm)

50.5.DELIVERY LINES (B)
From Centre Line 13in (330mm)
Length, from Ditch Line 54in (1370mm)
50.6.DELIVERY MAT LINES(C)
From Centre Line 7in (178mm)
Length 12in (305mm)

50.7.FROM DITCH LINE TO DEAD LINE
From Ditch Line (D) to Dead Line (E) 108in (2743mm)


50.8.JACK LINE (F)
From Dead Line 36in (915mm)
From Ditch Line 36in (915mm)
Length 36in (915mm)
50.9.BLOCK LINE (G) (Across Centre of Mat Length)
Length 15in (380mm)


50.10.FENDER, BLOCK & MARKINGS
Fender & Block, White Paint
Markings ½in (12.5mm) White Tape

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COMPETITIONS

51] SINGLES & PAIRS COMPETITION RULES
51.1. The Association will run annual Singles and Pairs Competitions. These competitions will be run under the Rules of the Association with any additional rules as necessary for the running of the competitions as set by the Competitions Secretary and/or Committee.
51.2. All Affiliated club members and League club members shall be eligible to enter , not just league players.

52] OYSTER CUP INTER-CLUB TRIPLES COMPETITION
This is a one-day competition open to all Affiliated clubs
52.1. All affiliated league clubs are automatically entered for this competition and it is the club's responsibility, if they do not wish to enter, to withdraw their team no later than four full weeks before the competition date. Players must be registered members of the club they are representing. Any Affiliated clubs may enter if they wish by application to the Competitions Secretary not less than four weeks prior to the competition date.
52.2. This competition will be run under the Rules of the Association with additional rules as necessary for the running of the competition as set by the Competition Secretary and/or Committee.
Note: For Singles, Pairs and Oyster Cup
On the day set aside for any EKSMBA competition, players involved should report to the Competition Secretary or his/her deputy at least 20 minutes before the first game is scheduled for playing.
In any dispute, the Competition Secretary's descision will be final.
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PLAYERS AND THEIR DUTIES

53] SKIP
53.1. The Skip shall have sole charge of their side. They will control the play and their instructions must be obeyed by all of their players.
53.2. With the opposing Skip, they will decide all disputed points or shots and when both agree, their decision will be final. If they cannot agree, either one or both may call the Umpire who will arbitrate and his/her decision shall be final and binding. In the absence of an Official Umpire, any person, mutually agreed by both Skips, will act as Umpire and their decision will be binding.
53.3. They will be responsible, whilst at the head end, for marking all touchers, removing the chalk marks from any non-touchers, removing any dead bowls from the ditch or rink mat or dead area. They will see that the jack or any toucher in the ditch is not disturbed, except by another toucher.
53.4. They will, whilst at the head end, in conjunction with the other Skip, decide on any line bowls and any other matters.
53.5. Whilst at the playing end, they may visit the head only when in possession of the rink mat. They will not carry their bowl beyond the nearest dead line, any bowl so carried will be declared dead and must be removed from the rink.
53.6. It will be the responsibility of the Skip to call foot faults whilst at the delivery end.
53.7. When players change ends after Leads and Seconds (and Thirds in a Fours game) have played all their bowls, both Skips must go to the delivery end before any further bowl is played. A Skip may not stall at the head to watch their opponent bowl. Skips may only visit the head when they are in possession of the rink mat and only then if both Skips have played their first bowl. If either Skip visits the head before both Skips have played their first bowl then their next bowl will be stopped and removed from the mat.
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54] THIRD IN A FOURS GAME
54.1. The Third will do all measuring, agree the shots, allowing the opposite number to also measure, and will inform the Skip of the result. Only if Thirds cannot agree will they call the Skips who will then arbitrate.
54.2. The Third will, whilst at the head end, in conjunction with the other Third, decide on any line bowls or call upon the Skips to decide.
54.3. The Third will be responsible, whilst at the head end, for marking all touchers, removing the chalk marks from any non-touchers, removing any dead bowls from the ditch or rink mat or dead area. They will see that the jack or any toucher in the ditch is not disturbed, except by another toucher.
54.4. The Third will take charge of the head only when it is the Skip’s turn to bowl and their side is in possession of the rink mat. If the head is changed they will inform their Skip and direct play accordingly.
54.5. Thirds may remain at the head end until it is their turn to bowl. They may not return to the head end or pass beyond the nearest dead line until they change places when the first Skip comes to the delivery end, except to replace the block if disturbed by a bowl they have personally bowled.
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55] SECOND IN A FOURS GAME
55.1. The Second will keep the scorecard and will see that the names of the players, on each side, are entered.
55.2. The Second will record the score, both for and against, as agreed by the Thirds and will compare their card with the opposing Second after each end.
55.3. The Second will be responsible for the scorecard and will retain it in their possession at all times and hand it to the Skip at the completion of the game.
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56] SECOND IN A TRIPLES GAME
56.1. The Second will keep the scorecard and also agree the shot or shots with the opposing Second and having recorded them, will inform the Skip.
56.2. The Second will prove claim for shot or shots by measuring but will not cause any bowl to be moved until the shot or shots are agreed, allowing the opposing Second to also measure. If they cannot agree, will call the Skips to arbitrate.
56.3. The Second will take charge of the head only when it is the Skip’s turn to bowl and their side is in possession of the rink mat. If the head is changed they will inform their Skip and direct play accordingly.
56.4. The Second will be responsible, whilst at the head end, for marking all touchers, removing the chalk marks from any non-touchers, removing any dead bowls from the ditch or rink mat or dead area. They will see that the jack or any toucher in the ditch is not disturbed, except by another toucher.
56.5. The Second will not visit the head end whilst at the delivery mat end and will, where practicable, remain behind the fender until the opposing Second has bowled all their bowls in that end.
56.6. The Second will, whilst at the head end, in conjunction with the other Second, decide on any line bowls or call upon the Skips to decide.
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57] LEAD
57.1. The Lead shall place the delivery mat correctly and see that the jack is correctly centred on the jack line before playing the first bowl.
57.2. The Leads shall bowl singly and alternately until all their bowls have been played.
57.3. The Leads will not visit the head or go to the head end until all the other players at that end have bowled all their bowls and will, where practicable, remain behind the fender.
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58] DIRECTING PLAY
Only one player shall be allowed on the mat at the head end at any one time, directing play and then only when their side is in possession of the rink mat. They must leave the mat before the next bowl is played.
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DUTIES OF THE MARKER AND UMPIRE

59] MARKER
59.1. Be familiar with the Rules of the game and see such Rules are complied with.
59.2. Be in possession of a reliable measure, callipers, wedges and both spray and stick chalk.
59.3. Be in possession of the scorecard, a pen or pencil and ensure the full names of both contestants are entered.
59.4. Make themselves familiar with the identifying marks on the bowls of each player.
59.5. Witness the toss for start.
59.6. See the delivery mat is correctly aligned and will place the jack on the jack line at the position required by the player to bowl first.
59.7. Observe strict neutrality.
59.8. Answer any questions put to them by the players but will not give any information unless requested.
59.9. Not pass any comment.
59.10. Address only the player who has possession of the rink mat.
59.11. Record only the score as agreed by the players.
59.12. Measure only when requested but will not cause any bowl to be moved until both players agree the shot or shots.
59.13. In any difficult measure, not attempt to make a decision but will call the Umpire to adjudicate.
59.14. Keep the players informed as to the state of the game.
59.15. Mark all touchers and remove the marks from non-touchers.
59.16. Remove all dead bowls from the ditch, rink mat or dead area.
59.17. Adjudicate on all line bowls.
59.18. On completion of the game, see that the scorecard is signed by the losing player and handed to the game controller or official or, if it is an Association competition game, returned to the home player for them to forward it to the Competition Secretary.
59.19. Ensure that all players, Umpires, spectators and other Markers in the vicinity of the head are made aware that a player has signalled their intention to play a forcing or firing shot and indicate to the player when this has been done.
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60] UMPIRE
60.1. Enforce the Rules of the game.
60.2. See that the game is continuous and played in a competitive and sporting manner.
60.3. Be available for consultation on any matter or point of law concerning the game.
60.4. Measure all difficult shots when requested, tolerate no interference with their decision being final and binding.
60.5. Arbitrate any dispute with their decision being final.
60.6. Pass no comment, advice or praise.
60.7. Remain strictly neutral and unbiased at all times.
60.8. Be fully conversant with the Rules of the game and any changes thereto.
60.9. Carry an up-to-date Rule Book at all times whilst officiating.
60.10. Only measure with such equipment as is approved by the EKSMBA.
60.11. Follow this code of conduct for Umpires as laid down by the EKSMBA.
60.12. Any dispute not provided for in these Rules shall be decided by the Umpire who’s decision will be final.
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DEFINITIONS AND GLOSSARY OF TERMS

1. Backhand: To the right-handed player, is the delivery to the left side of the block. To the left-handed player it is the delivery to the right side of the block.
2. Bias: Is the peculiar property of one side of the bowl, caused by shaping, which enables it to follow a curved course.
3. Block: Means the obstacle that is placed mid-way between each end of the rink mat on the block line.
4. Blocking: Means covering the lying shot or jack with a guarding bowl, in order to hinder an opponent.
5. Bowl in Course: Means a bowl from the time of delivery until it comes to rest.
6. Controlling Body: Means the body having immediate control of the conditions under which the game is being played.
7. Dead Area: Means the section of the rink mat between the dead lines.
8. Delivery Lines: Are markings within which a player's feet are restricted when delivering a bowl.
9. Displaced or Disturbed: Means accidentally moving a bowl or jack otherwise than with a live bowl in play.
10. Draw: Means delivering the bowl with sufficient impetus to reach it's objective with the necessary "green" to allow the bias to take effect.
11. End: Means tle placing of and playing to the jack of all players bowls in the same direction on the rink mat.
12. Fender: Is the wooden surround that encloses the ditch.
13. Forehand: To the right-handed player, is the delivery to the right side of the block. To the left-handed player it is the delivery to the left side of the block.
14. Head: Means the jack and such bowls as have come to rest within the boundary of the rink mat and are not dead.
15. Jack High: Means that the nearest portion of the bowl referred to is the same distance from the dead line as the nearest portion of the jack.
16. Lead: Means the player on each side who goes first.
17. Live Area: Is the section of the rink mat between the dead line and the ditch line, delineated by the inside edge of the ½ inch marking.
18. Pair: Means two players on one side whose position, in order of play, are called Lead and Skip.
19. Rink Mat: Means the whole rectangular playing surface.
20. Running Wood: Is a bowl delivered with sufficient impetus to prevent its bias from taking full effect. Used for removing a bowl or breaking the head.
21. Skip: Is the player who controls the play on behalf of his/her side on any rink mat.
22. Singles: Is one player competing against another.
23. Team: Is any agreed number of players on one side.
24. Toucher: Is the term that is applied to a bowl which, in it's original course, touches the livejack in any legal way.
25. Trailing: Means contacting the jack with sufficient momentum to move it and follow it to its new position.
26. Triple: Means any three players on one side whose positions are called Lead, Second and Skip.
27. Wick: Is the term applied to a bowl which glances off another bowl or bowls so as to change its natural line of travel
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FINAL WORD

It should be noted that no code of laws and rules can govern for every situation and the unforeseen can arise. Where an incident occurs that cannot reasonably have been foreseen, it is hoped that in the absence of any express rule, good sportsmanship and commonsense will prevail.
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APPENDIX 1 GUIDELINES FOR BOWLERS WITH BOWLING DIFFICULTIES

It should be noted that these are guidelines only and not rules. It is expected that every accommodation should be made for any disability, either temporary or permanent, but no set of guidelines can cover every problem. Good sportsmanship and fair play should be the overall deciding factor.
Where the rules of short mat bowling are concerned, probably the most important element of a delivery is the point at which a bowl is released. These guidelines have been set in order to try and assist bowlers with a delivery difficulty to have the same opportunities, as near as is practical, as the delivery advantages that an able bodied bowler has.
1. Bowling with a Chute
A chute may be used to deliver a bowl. The chute may be of any suitable construction. The high end of the chute must be placed within arms length of the bowler, with the bowler standing or sitting on the delivery mat according to the rules. NOTE: It is common to use a type of guttering for a chute but any other designs are perfectly acceptable.
Where a helper is involved, they may place the bowl in the chute and position the chute at the request of the bowler. The bowler will release the bowl by hand or other device. Helpers must face away from the head and not offer any bowling advice except to comment of the state of the head if asked.
2. Bowling from a Wheelchair
A very complex and difficult subject as wheelchair bowlers can bowl freehand or may need a chute. In practice, a freehand wheelchair bowler can bowl with their chair in a fore and aft position, at an angle or with their chair at right angles to the mat.
When bowling with a chute or similar device, a wheelchair bowler may be on or off the mat, provided they meet the conditions in the ‘Bowling with a Chute’ section.
When bowling freehand from a wheelchair in a fore and aft position and assuming the delivery mat is in the normal position, the axle/centre hub of the main wheel of the chair on the side of the hand the bowler is using, should be positioned over the delivery mat and may be to the left or right of the delivery mat as appropriate. The other wheel may be off the delivery mat.
If a freehand bowler is positioned at an angle to the mat, they must have the axle/centre hub of their main wheel on the side of the hand with which they are delivering within the bounds of the delivery mat.
The fender at the delivery end may be removed if required.
3. Bowling from an Ordinary Chair
When using an ordinary non-wheeled chair, to prevent damage to the bowling mat, the delivery mat can be placed at right angles to its normal position and may be positioned anywhere in the ditch within a backward extension of the delivery lines. Both front legs of the chair must be positioned on the delivery mat.
4. Blind Bowlers
There are a number of different methods that a blind bowler can use. They should be subject to the normal foot fault rules but if they are about to foot fault, they should be warned before they deliver their bowl.
As to instruction from the head, players are usually informed using the hands/face of a clock to advise them of the various positions of the bowls. Sometimes a helper at the head may indicate the angle at which a bowl should be delivered by a clap of the hands from the side of the mat or another sound. Helpers are not allowed to inform bowlers as to which side of the mat to bowl.
5. Learning Difficulties
For bowlers with learning difficulties that fall outside the other groups, they are expected to follow the rules of short mat bowls but some leeway must be used to allow for their general understanding of the game. Good sportsmanship and understanding is expected to prevail once again.
6. Bowling with a Foot
It is expected that any bowler using their foot to deliver their bowl should comply with the rules of short mat bowls where practicable. They must deliver their bowl with their non-bowling foot fully on the delivery mat.
7. Using a Support
Where a stick or other support device is used to enable a bowler to maintain balance, the stick/support may be placed outside the delivery line. If necessary, the back foot may be off the side of the delivery mat but the front foot must be within the delivery lines.
8. Using a Delivery Device
A device exists which enables a bowler to deliver a bowl from an upright position, used by swinging it backwards and forwards. This usually has a release trigger on the hand grip to release the bowl.
9. Other Delivery Problems
It should be clearly noted that the above sections refer to the known problems that exist. It would be helpful if the Committee is informed of any problem not covered by these guidelines so a suitable solution can be found to assist with the problem.

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